European Union

Government Agencies

  1. The Health and Consumer Protection Directorate General

    Their main objective is to help make European citizens healthier, safer and more confident in three specific areas of consumer protection:

    1. public health
    2. food safety
    3. consumer affairs

    Its website contains publications, news and links in the afore-mentioned areas.

  2. The European Consumer Centres Network (ECC-network)

    Consists of 15 European Consumer Centres located in 13 Member States whose main purpose is to serve as a network interface between the European Commission and European consumers. The role of the network is to help European consumers understand better how to make the Internal Market work for them, provide advise if they encounter a problem and provide the European Commission with important “grassroots” information on consumer concerns. The website of the ECC-network available in 11 language contains comprehensive information in many areas of consumer protection such as:

    1. consumer policy
    2. securing consumers’ safety
    3. safeguarding consumers’ interest
    4. enforcing consumer protection rules
    5. redress: asserting consumer rights
    6. working together with consumer
    7. international consumer issues
    8. consumer education and information
    9. tenders and grants

    The website also has a section on electronic commerce containing information, press releases, speeches, events, links and archives in areas such as online dispute resolution, security of payments, data privacy and cybercrime.

    Publications of Consumer Affairs
    Consumer Policy Strategy 2002-2006

  3. Europe’s Information Society Thematic Portal

    Provides a unique entry point for all European Commission policies and activities related to the Information Society, irrespective of the internal Commission department (“Directorate General”) responsible for them. The website contains information on policies and news, events and publications on the Information Society.

    This website has a section on Consumer Protection with information applying to all service of general interest within the EU, including directives, regulation and information on some topics of e-consumer protection.

Industry Groups and Private Organizations

  1. European Consumer Law Group (ECLG)

    A group of attorneys from European consumer organisations and law scholars undertaking research in the field of consumer law. The ECLG’s purpose is to strengthening the links between practitioners and researchers involved in the promotion of consumer interests in their respective countries and to issue policy reports and recommendations addressed to all actors involved in European Consumer Law and policy making, such as national and community authorities, consumer advocates and academics. The group also provides a forum for facilitating and improving co-operation and information exchange between its members. ECLG’s website contains publications and reports of diverse areas of consumer protection.

Public Interest Consumer Organizations

  1. The European’s Consumer Organization (BEUC)

    A federation of 38 independent national consumer organisations from the EU, accession and EEA countries based in Brussels, Belgium. BEUC’s purpose is to try to influence in the consumer interest, the development of EU policy and to promote and defend the interests of European consumers. BEUC’s website contains annual reports, press releases, a list of useful links and publication organized by topic on various areas of consumer protection, including e-commerce, copyright law, health & safety, among others.

  2. European Digital Rights (EDR)

    An international non-for profit organization based in Brussels whose main purpose is to defend civil rights in the field of information and communication technology. The EDR is currently working in various policy areas such as data retention requirements, privacy, spam, telecommunication interception, copyright and fair use restrictions, cybercrime, security and freedom of speech originating in the European Union.

  3. Statewatch

    A non-profit-making voluntary group founded in 1991. It is comprised of lawyers, academics, journalists, researchers and community activists. Statewatch encourages the publication of investigative journalism and critical research in Europe the fields of the state, justice and home affairs, civil liberties, accountability and openness.



  1. [LINK] Hague Convention on the Law Applicable to International Sales of Goods (June 15, 1955)
  2. [LINK] Convention of 22 December 1986 on the Law Applicable to Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG)
  3. [LINK] Convention of 1 February 1971 on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters
  4. [LINK] 1968 Brussels Convention on jurisdiction and the enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters (consolidated version)
  5. [LINK] 88/592/EEC: Convention on jurisdiction and the enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters - Done at Lugano on 16 September 1988
  6. [LINK] Council Regulation (EC) No 44/2001 of 22 December 2000 on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters
  7. [LINK] Convention on the law applicable to contractual obligations, opened for signature in Rome on 19 June 1980 [Official Journal C 27 of 26.1.1998] (Rome Convention)
  8. [LINK] United Nations Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (June 7, 1959)


  1. [LINK] Council Directive 93/13/EEC of 5 April 1993 of Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts
  2. [LINK] Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and of the free movement of such data
  3. [LINK] Directive 97/7/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 May 1997 on the Protection of Consumers in respect of Distance Contracts (Distance Contracts Directive)
  4. [LINK] Directive 97/66/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 December 1997 concerning the processing of personal data and the protection of privacy in the telecommunications sector (repealed and replaced by Directive 2002/58/EC) pdf
  5. [LINK] Directive 1999/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 May 1999 on certain aspects of the sale of consumer goods and associated guaranties pdf
  6. [LINK] Directive 2000/31 of the European Parliament and the of the Council of June 8 2000 on certain legal aspects of information society services, in particular electronic commerce in the Internal Market (Directive on electronic commerce) pdf
  7. [LINK] Directive 2002/58 EC of the European Parliament and the of the Council of 12 July 2002 concerning the processing of personal data and the protection of privacy in the electronic communications sector (Directive on privacy and electronic communications) pdf


  1. [LINK] Regulation (EC) N°2006/2004 of the European Parliament and Council of 27 October 2004 on Co-operation between National Authorities Responsible for the Enforcement of Consumer Protection Laws (“The Regulation on Consumer Protection Co-operation”) (Official Journal of the European Union L 364/1 of 9 December 2004) pdf
  2. [LINK] Regulation (EC) No. 864/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 July 2007 on the law applicable to non-contractual obligations (Rome II) pdf